Pediatric Workforce

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Pediatric Workforce​

​​​​​​The effective and efficient delivery of children's health care depends on the number, composition, and distribution of general pediatricians and pediatric medical and surgical subspecialists necessary to deliver care to the child population. 

The AAP’s expert group on this topic is the Committee on Pediatric Workforce. These national experts analyze and report on the current and future supply of pediatricians and the demand for pediatric services. The committee formulates policy and addresses the financing of graduate medical education, changes in practice patterns (including part-time practice, retirement trends, and use of non-physician clinicians), scope of practice, workforce diversity, and the geographic distribution of pediatricians. 

For essential information on the pediatric physician workforce visit the CO​PW website.

 Another useful resource is the American Board of Pediatrics 2015-2016 Work Force Data report

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Future of Pediatric Education (FOPE) II Study

In 2000, the AAP published groundbreaking pediatric workforce survey results in its comprehensive Future of Pediatric Education (FOPE) II study. Seventeen subspecialty sections participated in that project, developing subspecialty specific questions to complement the core questions shared across sections.

A new workforce survey, modeled on the FOPE II project, was initiated in 2011, with 20 subspecialty sections participating in Phase 1 (Phase 2 will begin in 2018).  Subspecialty findings have been widely disseminated.  Below is a list of publications and presentations from the workforce surveys fielded 2012-2015.

Articles (15)

Bell, J., Ruch-Ross, H., Hotaling, A.  Practice patterns and projections for the U.S. pediatric otolaryngology workforce.  JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Published online June 16, 2016. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2016.1163

Bridgemohan, C, Bauer, NS, Nielsen, BA, DeBattista, A, Ruch-Ross, HS, Paul, LB, Roizen, N, 2015 Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics Workforce Survey: Is the Current System Viable?  Paper accepted for publication by Pediatrics.

Donnelly MJ, Thornton SC, Radabaugh CL, Friedland AR, Cross JT, Ruch-Ross HS. Characteristics of the combined internal medicine-pediatrics workforce. The American Journal of Medicine, 2015, 128(12):1374-9.  Epub 2015 Aug 29.

Donnelly MJ, Lubrano L, Radabaugh CL, Lukela MP, Friedland AR, Ruch-Ross HS (in press). The med-peds hospitalist workforce: results from the American Academy of Pediatrics workforce survey. Hosp Pediatr, 2015, 5(11):574-9.

Engelman, G, Koutures, C, Provance, A.  (2016): The Current State of Pediatric Sports Medicine: A Workforce Analysis, The Physician and Sportsmedicine.  DOI: 10.1080/00913847.2016.1149425

Gilbert DL, Horn PS, Kang PB, Mintz M, Joshi SM, Ruch-Ross H, Bale JF. Child Neurology Recruitment and Training: views of the residents and child neurologists from the 2015 AAP/CNS workforce survey. Pediatric Neurology, 2016. In Press.

Gorelick MH, Schremmer R, Ruch-Ross HS, Radabaugh CL, Selbst S (in press). Current workforce characteristics and burnout in pediatric emergency medicine. Academic Emergency Medicine, 2016 Jan;23(1):48-54. doi: 10.1111/acem.12845. Epub 2015 Dec 31.

Hosseinzadeh, P, Copley, L, Ruch-Ross, H, Schwend, RM, Sawyer, JR (paper accepted for publication). Current Issues Affecting the Practice of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgeons:  Results of the 2014 Workforce Survey of American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Orthopaedics.  Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics.

Kang, PB, Bale, JF, Mintz, M, Joshi, SM, Gilbert, DL, Radabaugh, CR, Ruch-Ross, HS; on behalf of the Section on Neurology Executive Committee of the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Board of Directors of the Child Neurology Society.  The Child Neurology Clinical Workforce in 2015: Report of the AAP/CNS Joint Taskforce.  Neurology, 2016 Aug 26. pii: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000003147. [Epub ahead of print]

Primack WA, Meyers KE, Kirkwood SJ, Ruch-Ross HS, Radabaugh CL, Greenbaum LA. The US pediatric nephrology workforce: a report commissioned by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Am J Kidney Dis. 2015 Apr 22. Pii: S0272-6386(15)00601-0. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.03.022. [Epub ahead of print].

Primack W, Glenn D, Meyers K Pediatric Nephrology Training Worldwide 2016: Quantum educatus?  KI Rep 2016;1:144-147.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2016.07.002

Radabaugh CL, Ruch-Ross HS, Riley CL, Stockwell JA, Conway EE, Mink Rb, Agus MS, Poss WB, Salerno RA, Vernon DD. Practice patterns in pediatric critical care medicine: results of a workforce survey. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015;16(8):e308-312.

Ross, RD, Srivastava, S, Cabrera, AG, Ruch-Ross, HS, Radabaugh, CL, Minich, LL, Mahle, WT, Brown, DW.  The United States Pediatric Cardiology 2015 Workforce Assessment: A survey of current training and employment patterns.  Progress in Pediatric Cardiology 13-SEP-2016 DOI: 10.1016/j.ppedcard.2016.09.001.

Shapiro, E, Cooper, C, and Greenfield, S, on behalf of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Urology,  The American Academy of Pediatrics Workforce Survey for the Section on Urology 2015.  Journal of Pediatric Urology, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2016.09.002.

Yeh, SH, Vijayan, V, Hahn, A, Ruch-Ross, H, Kirkwood, S, Phillips, TC, Harrison, C.  Profile of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Workforce in 2015.  Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Society, December 22, 2017, pix094, https://doi.org/10.1093/jpids/pix094
https://academic.oup.com/jpids/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jpids/pix094/4773349?guestAccessKey=3033ea2d-bf30-4e95-8a2f-9255bb20717e

Posters (13)

Becker ML, Riebschleger M, Ruch-Ross HS, Laskosz L, Radabaugh C, Ferguson PJ, Schikler KN, Hong SD. (2015, November.) Factors that Impact Job Selection in Pediatric Rheumatology. Invited poster at the American College of Rheumatology annual meeting.

Bell, JR, Ruch-Ross, HS, Hotaling, AJ.  An update on pediatric otolaryngology:  results of a workforce survey.  Poster at ASPO 2016, Chicago, IL.

Bridgemohan, C (presenter), Bauer, N, Nielsen, B, Debattista, A, Ruch-Ross, HS, Paul, LB,  Roizen, N.  Gender Variation & High Levels of Non Reimbursed Time in the DBP Physician Workforce (2016, May).  Poster at the annual meeting of the Pediatric Academic Societies.

DeBattista, AM, Bauer, NS, Nielsen, BA, Ruch-Ross, HS, Paul, L, Roizen, NJ, Bridgemohan, C.  Developmental-Behavioral Pediatric Workforce (DBP):  Practice Similarities and Differences of NP and MD Professionals.  Poster at the annual meeting of the Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 2016.

Hahn A, Yeh, S, Vijayan, V, MD, Kirkwood, S, Phillips, C, Ruch-Ross, HS, Harrison CJ, Survey of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists: Realities of Employment Opportunities and Workforce Needs.  Poster at ID Week 2016.

Harris, Christopher E; Dorkin, Henry; Cataletto, M; Katkin, Julie; Laskosz, Laura; Ruch-Ross, Holly; Mulvey, Holly.   Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine: Trends And Future In Care Of Children With Cystic Fibrosis.  Poster at the North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference, 2016.

Meyers K (presenter), Greenbaum L, Ruch-Ross H, Kirkwood S, Radabaugh C, Primack W. (2014, May.) Why Physicians Might Leave Pediatric Nephrology. Poster at the annual meeting of the Pediatric Academic Societies, Vancouver, BC.

Primack W, Glenn D, Meyers K Pediatric Nephrology Training Worldwide 2016: Quantum educatus?  Presented at American Society of Nephrology, Chicago, November, 2016.

Primack W (presenter), Greenbaum L, Ruch-Ross H, Kirkwood S, Radabaugh C, Meyers K. (2014, May.) The Agony and the Ecstasy of a Career in Pediatric Nephrology. Poster at the annual meeting of the Pediatric Academic Societies, Vancouver, BC.

Primack W (presenter), Greenbaum L, Ruch-Ross H, Kirkwood S, Radabaugh C, Meyers K. (2014, May.) The Pediatric Nephrology Workforce: 2013. Poster at the annual meeting of the Pediatric Academic Societies, Vancouver, BC.

William Primack, Kevin Meyers, Holly Ruch-Ross, Suzanne Kirkwood, Carrie Radabaugh, Lawrence Greenbaum. What Makes a Pediatric Nephrologist Tick?  Presented at the Pediatric Academic Society, Vancouver, May, 2014.

Riebschleger M, Becker ML, Ruch-Ross HS, Laskosz L, Radabaugh C, Ferguson PJ, Schikler KN, Hong SD. (2015, November.) The Pediatric Rheumatology Workforce in 2015: A Survey of Pediatric Rheumatologists. Invited poster at the American College of Rheumatology annual meeting.

Vini Vijayan, MD, Sylvia Yeh MD, Andrea Hahn MD, Suzanne Kirkwood MS, Terri Christene Phillips MSA, Holly Ruch-Ross ScD, Christopher J. Harrison, MD.  A Profile of The Pediatric Infectious Diseases Workforce in 2015.  Poster at ID Week 2016.

Presentations (Including Panel Presentations) (6)

Bridgemohan, C., DeBattista, AM, and Roizen, N, on behalf of the DBP Workforce Study Team, State of the DBP Workforce:  A Roadmap for Viability, Plenary at the annual meeting of the Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 2017.

Fisher ES, Rauch DA, Quinonez R, Alverson BK, Percelay JM. Growing Strong: Findings From The American Academy of Pediatrics Hospital Medicine Workforce Survey 2012-13. Oral presentation at 2014 PAS Annual Meeting, Vancouver, BC

Percelay JM, Rauch DA, Quinonez R, Alverson BK, Fisher ES. Pediatric Hospital Medicine Worklife: Findings from the American Academy of Pediatrics 2012-13 Survey. Oral presentation at 2014 PAS Annual Meeting, Vancouver, BC

Gorelick MH (presenter), Schremmer R, Ruch-Ross H, Radabaugh C, Selbst S. "Current Workforce Trends in Pediatric Emergency Medicine". Panel presentation at the 2015 Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting. San Diego, CA. April 2015.

Moskowitz, WB (presenter), Ruch-Ross H, Mulvey H. ""Provider Survey of Pediatricians."  Panel presentation at the Association of American Medical Colleges 2016 Annual Health Workforce Research Conference: ½ day Pre-Conference Session: "Are We There Yet?  How Specialties Understand Workforce Needs"

Gilbert, DL, Horn, PS, Kang, PB, Bale, JF, Mintz, M, Joshi, SM, Ruch-Ross, H.  Child Neurology Clinical Workforce Survey 2015 – resident and practitioner views of residency education: Report of the Joint Taskforce on Child Neurology Workforce Issues of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Child Neurology Society.  Accepted for presentation at the annual meeting of the Child Neurology Society, October 2016..

Submissions (2 articles)

Hurly, T, Laskey, AL, Makoroff, KL, Radabaugh, CL, Ruch-Ross, HS, Child Abuse Pediatrics in the United States: A Workforce Perspective.  Paper submitted to Academic Pediatrics.​

Harris, C, Katkin, J, Caataletto, M, Dorkin, H, Laskosz, L, Ruch-Ross, HS, US Pediatic Pulmonology Workforce.  Paper submitted to Pediatric Pulmonology;  in revision.

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