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External Resources

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
The NIAAA is one of the 27 institutes and centers that comprise the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The NIAAA supports and conducts research on the impact of alcohol use on human health and well-being. It is the largest funder of alcohol research in the world.

SAMHSA FASD Center for Excellence
The SAMHSA FASD Center is a federal initiative devoted to preventing and treating FASDs. This Web site provides information and resources about FASDs, including materials you can use to raise awareness about FASDs. Additionally, the center is dedicated to providing training, technical assistance, and conference/event speakers.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
The mission of the CDC’s National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities is to promote the health of babies, children, and adults and enhance the potential for full, productive living by working to identify the causes of birth defects and developmental disabilities; help children to develop and reach their full potential; and promote the health and well-being among people of all ages with disabilities, including blood disorders. The center’s Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Prevention Team works to prevent FASDs and to ameliorate these conditions for individuals and families already living with FASDs. 

The National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC)
NECTAC is the national early childhood technical assistance center supported by the US Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs under the provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. NECTAC serves Part C-Infant and Toddlers with Disabilities Programs and Part B-Section 619 Preschool Programs for Children with Disabilities in all 50 states and 10 jurisdictions to improve service systems and outcomes for children and families. This Web site is one of an array of services provided to Part C coordinators and Section 619 coordinators, and the resources on this site are available to all.

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities Early Intervention Services
This Web site provides an overview and specific resources for early intervention and individual family service plans throughout the United States.

American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
This premier organization for obstetricians and gynecologists and providers of women's health care, provides the highest quality education worldwide, continuously improves health care for women through practice and research, leads advocacy for women's health care issues nationally and internationally, and provides excellent organizational support and services for its members.

National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (NOFAS)
NOFAS is the leading voice and resource of the FASD community. Founded in 1990, NOFAS is the only international nonprofit organization committed solely to FASD primary prevention, advocacy, and support. NOFAS seeks to create a global community free of alcohol-exposed pregnancies and a society supportive of individuals already living with FASDs. NOFAS effectively increases public awareness and mobilizes grassroots action in diverse communities and represents the interests of persons with FASDs and their caregivers as the liaison to researchers and policymakers. By ensuring that FASDs are broadly recognized as developmental disabilities, NOFAS strives to reduce the stigma and improve the quality of life for affected individuals and families.

FASD: What School Systems Should Know about Prevention
This NOFAS factsheet describes the powerful influence schools have on young people, therefore making them the ideal setting to educate youth about the dangers of underage drinking and sexual activity.

FASD: What School Systems Should Know about Affected Children
This NOFAS factsheet outlines the special learning needs and wide array of behavioral challenges associated with children with an FASD and provides some tips for preparation to address them.

DO2Learn.com Teachers’ Toolbox

Providing the proper expectations, interventions, and supports can help individuals with special needs to succeed and learn the skills they need to lead productive lives. While this material is based on techniques that have proven effective for special needs, the tips may be of value for individuals with a range of other disorders that result in behavior, social, and learning problems.

University of Washington Fetal Alcohol and Drug Unit
The Fetal Alcohol and Drug Unit is a research unit dedicated since 1973 to the goals of studying FAS and FASDs across the life span, disseminating research information, providing consultation for individuals affected by prenatal exposure to alcohol, and intervening with high-risk mothers to prevent future births of children with fetal alcohol and drug effects.

Family Empowerment Network
The Family Empowerment Network (FEN) is a training and referral resource serving families affected by FASDs and the providers who serve them. FEN’s mission is simple: empower families through education and support. Members of FEN include birth and adoptive parents, foster care providers, grandparents, siblings, individuals affected by FASDs, extended family members, and the providers who work with these families. FEN is an affiliate of NOFAS.

Children’s Research Triangle
Children’s Research Triangle (CRT) is a nonprofit clinic providing services to children with developmental disabilities and conducting research into interventions appropriate for children with FASDs and other disorders. CRT provides information on interventions specific to children with FASDs and young children with mental health issues. In addition, they conduct pre-adoption evaluation and consultation, specializing in international adoptions. 

“All About Me” booklet
This booklet was produced by the Bluegrass Prevention Center through the Sycamore Project: Kentucky’s Prevention Enhancement Site for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. This is a customizable resource that families living with FASDs can complete and share with their educators, caregivers, and others who may not know about FASDs and how they affect emotional, behavioral, and environmental responses.

Background Literature
What You Need to Know: How Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Co-Occur With Mental Health
This SAMHSA fact sheet outlines how prenatal alcohol exposure can cause behavioral, cognitive, and psychological problems. Individuals with FASDs also may receive multiple diagnoses, which may require multiple referrals. Also it is important to determine if the signs and symptoms are the result of prenatal alcohol exposure or the result of early trauma (or both), which could affect the type of referrals needed. This fact sheet also demonstrates how having an FASD may make treatment for the different mental health disorders more challenging.

FASD & the Importance of Case Management/Care Coordination
Given the wide range of variability of individual patients and families, there is no specific treatment for FASDs. The management plan will depend entirely on the problems manifested in specific patients as well as the needs of the patient’s family. For most people with FASDs, their conditions are a chronic special health care need with a myriad of problems that shift over time in number, type, and priority. This tool outlines the importance of case management and what it entails.

Neurobiology and Neurodevelopmental Impact of Childhood Traumatic Stress and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure
Research reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure and child trauma (ie, abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse) can have deleterious effects on child development across multiple domains. This study analyzed the impact on childhood neurodevelopment of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal traumatic experience compared to postnatal traumatic experience alone. Findings indicate that children exposed prenatally to alcohol along with postnatal traumatic experience had lower intelligence scores and more several neurodevelopmental deficits in language, memory, visual processing, motor skills, and attention than did traumatized children without prenatal alcohol exposure. The children with prenatal alcohol exposure also had more oppositional defiant behavior, inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and social problems.

Understanding the Behavioral and Emotional Consequences of Child Abuse
Children who have suffered early abuse or neglect may later present with significant behavior problems, including emotional instability, depression, and a tendency to be aggressive or violent with others. Troublesome behaviors may persist long after the abusive or neglectful environment has changed or the child has been in foster care placement. Neurobiological research has shown that early abuse results in an altered physiological response to stressful stimuli, a response that deleteriously affects the child's subsequent socialization. Pediatricians can assist caregivers by helping them recognize the abused or neglected child's altered responses, formulate more effective coping strategies, and mobilize available community resources.

Re-examining the core features of autism: a comparison of autism spectrum disorder and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Bishop S, Gahagan S, Lord C. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007;48:1111–1121.

Attention Problems
Children with FASDs are often diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Distinguishing between FASDs and ADHD is warranted as adaptive behavior, executive functioning, attention and memory vary across these diagnoses. These articles discuss theories related to possible variants of ADHD for children diagnosed with FASDs, treatment options, and varying responses to medications.

Distinguishing between attention-deficit hyperactivity and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in children: clinical guidelines. Peadon E, Elliott EJ. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2010;6:509–515.

A comparison of children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Coles CD, Platzman KA, Raskind-Hood CL, Brown RT, Falek A, Smith IE. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997;21:150-161. 
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